// 12 октября 2021 // Без рубрики
Without the participation of the United States and making full use of the flexible Kyoto mechanisms, the cost has been estimated at less than 0.05% of GDP, in accordance with Annex B. Compared to previous estimates of 0.1 to 1.1%. In the absence of flexible mechanisms, non-US equity costs were estimated at less than 0.1%. Compared to previous estimates of 0.2 to 2%. These cost estimates were considered to be based on extensive evidence and consistency in the literature. Gupta et al. (2007) evaluated the climate policy literature. They found that no relevant assessment of the UNFCCC or its protocol has stated that these agreements have been or will be successful in addressing the climate problem.  These assessments provided that the UNFCCC or its protocol would not be amended. The Framework Convention and its Protocol contain provisions for future policies. .