Treaty Of Versailles Agreement
// 12 октября 2021 // Без рубрики
The British Second Army, which has about 275,000 veterans, moved to Germany in late 1918.   In March 1919, this force became the British Army of the Rhine (BAOR). The total number of troops that had enlisted in the occupation was rapidly reduced when veterans were demobilized and replaced by inexperienced men who had completed their basic training after the cessation of hostilities.  Until 1920, the BAOR had only 40,594 men and was reduced the following year to 12,421 men. The size of the BAOR fluctuated in the following years, but never exceeded 9,000 men.  [brief incomplete citation] The British did not respect all the territorial withdrawals dictated by Versailles, as Germany did not fulfill its own contractual obligations.  A total withdrawal was considered, but was refused in order to maintain a presence, continue to play the role of controlling French ambitions and prevent the creation of an autonomous Republic of the Rhine.  To cover this amount, Germany could pay in cash or in kind: coal, wood, chemical dyes, pharmaceuticals, livestock, agricultural machinery, building materials and factory machinery. German aid for the restoration of the University Library in Leuven, destroyed by the Germans on 25 August 1914, was also charged to the sum. Territorial changes imposed by the Treaty have also been taken into account.   The payment plan required $250 million in twenty-five days, then $500 million per year, plus 26% of the value of German exports. The federal government should issue five percent interest bonds and create a fund down one percent to support the payment of reparations.  The German economy was so weak that only a small percentage of the reparations were paid in hard currency.
Nevertheless, even the payment of this small percentage of the initial reparations (132 billion gold marks) weighed heavily on the German economy. Although the causes of devastating post-war hyperinflation are complex and controversial, the Germans blamed the treaty for the near-bankruptcy of their economy, and some economists estimated that reparations accounted for up to a third of hyperinflation.  First, a “Council of Ten” (consisting of two delegates from the United Kingdom, France, the United States, Italy, and Japan) met formally to decide on the terms of peace. . . .